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Winchester 1897 Trench gun heat shield and bayonet lug attachment original WWII

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 468403208925555410 Winchester 1897 Trench gun heat shield and bayonet lug attachment original WWII

RARE original 1897 Winchester trench gun heat shield and bayonet lug attachment 4 hole. This style was used in the later part of WW2. It has slight pitting on the shield but very straight and bayonet attachment is super. Proper rivets, this model was not stamped. Screws are in excellent condition; heads are nice. Buyer pays $10 shipping. Will fit Model 97 and Model 12 Trench Gun. The Winchester Model 1897, also known as the Model 97, M97, or Trench Gun, was a pump-action shotgun with an external hammer and tube magazine manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company. The Model 1897 was an evolution of the Winchester Model 1893 designed by John Browning. From 1897 until 1957, over one million of these shotguns were produced. The Model 1897 was offered in numerous barrel lengths and grades, chambered in 12 and 16 gauge, and as a solid frame or takedown. The 16-gauge guns had a standard barrel length of 28 inches, while 12-gauge guns were furnished with 30-inch length barrels. Special length barrels could be ordered in lengths as short as 20 inches, and as long as 36 inches. Since the time the Model 1897 was first manufactured it has been used by American soldiers,[1] police departments,[2] and hunters.[2] Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 Improvements From the 1893 2 Description 2.1 Grades of the Model 97 2.2 Original Prices 3 Military use 4 World War I Protests 4.1 German Response 5 Other uses 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links History The Winchester Model 1897 was designed by the famous American firearms inventor John Moses Browning. The Model 1897 was first listed for sale in the November 1897 Winchester catalog as a 12 gauge solid frame. However, the 12 gauge takedown was added in October 1898, and the 16 gauge takedown in February 1900.[3] Originally produced as a tougher, stronger and more improved version of the Winchester 1893, itself a takeoff on the early Spencer pump gun, the 1897 was identical to its forerunner, except that the receiver was thicker and allowed for use of smokeless powder shells, which were not common at the time. The 1897 introduced a "take down" design, where the barrel could be taken off; a standard in pump shotguns made today, like the Remington 870 and Mossberg 500 series. Over time, “the model 97 became the most popular shotgun on the American market and established a standard of performance by which other kinds and makes of shotguns were judged, including the most expensive imported articles”.[2] The Winchester Model 1897 was in production from 1897 until 1957. It was in this time frame that the "modern" hammerless designs became common, like the Winchester Model 1912 and the Remington 870 and the Model 1897 was superseded by the Winchester Model 1912.[4] However, the gun can still be found today in regular use. [edit] Improvements From the 1893 In the new Model 1897, many of the weaknesses that were present in the Model 93 were taken into account and remedied.[3] These improvements included: The frame was strengthened and made longer to handle a 12 gauge 2¾-inch shell, as well as the 2?-inch shell.[3] The frame at the top was covered so that the ejection of the fired shell was entirely from the side.[3] This added a great amount of strength to the frame of the gun and it allowed the use of a 2¾ inch shell without the danger of the gun constantly jamming.[5] The gun could not be opened until a slight forward movement of the slide handle released the action slide lock. In firing, the recoil of the gun gave a slight forward motion to the slide handle and released the action slide lock which enabled immediate opening of the gun. In the absence of any recoil, the slide handle had to be pushed forward manually in order to release the action slide lock.[3] A movable cartridge guide was placed on the right side of the carrier block to prevent the escape of the shell when the gun was turned sideways in the act of loading.[3] The stock was made longer and with less drop.[3] Of the improvements, the slide lock is the one that really made the gun safer. This improved slide lock kept the gun locked until actual firing occurred which prevented the gun from jamming in the case of a misfire. The slide lock "stands in such a relation to the body of the firing pin as will prevent the firing pin reaching the primer until the pin has moved forward a sufficient distance to insure locking of the breech bolt."[6] This prevents the action sleeve "from being retracted by the hand of the gunner until after firing, and hence rendering the fire arm more safe"[7] Description Open action on an 1897 portraying the long slide that projects from the receiver. The Winchester Model 1897 evolved from the Winchester Model 1893. The Model 1897 and 1893 were both designed by John Browning. The Model 1897 is an external hammer shotgun lacking a trigger disconnector giving it the ability to slam fire. This means that the user can hold the trigger down while pumping the shotgun and once the pump is returned to the forward position the gun fires.[8] The gun itself is classified as a slide action pump shotgun. It was the first truly successful pump-action shotgun produced. Throughout the time period the Model 1897 was in production, over a million of the type were produced in various grades and barrel lengths. 16-gauge guns had a standard barrel length of 28 inches, while 12-gauge guns were furnished with 30-inch length barrels. Special length barrels could be ordered in lengths as short as 20 inches, and as long as 36 inches. Along with various grades and barrel lengths, the Model 1897 came in two different chamberings. One was the 12 gauge and the other was the 16 gauge.[8] The shells should be of the 2-¾ inch or 2-? inch model.[3] Any shells larger are not recommended. An average Model 1897 held 5 shotgun shells in the magazine tube. After including the one shell that could be held in the chamber, the average Model 1897 held a total of 6 shotgun shells. However, this would vary from grade to grade.[9] When working the action of the Model 1897 the fore end is racked and a long slide comes out of the receiver and ejects the spent shell while simultaneously cocking the external hammer. This is why the gun is classified as a slide action pump shotgun. The Chinese company Norinco has made an effort to reproduce this firearm. The Norinco 97 is an almost exact copy of the Winchester 1897, produced in both Trench and Riot grades, yet lacking in the fit and finish of the originals.[1] Model 1897 and the reproduced Norinco Grades of the Model 97 Different Grades of the Model 1897[10] Grade Gauge Barrel (inches) Production dates Remarks Standard 12,16 30,28 1897-1957[11] Plain walnut stock with steel buttplate Trap 12,16 30,28 1897-1931[11] Fancy walnut with checkering Pigeon 12,16 28 1897-1939[11] Same as Trap, but hand-engraved receiver Tournament 12 30 1910-1931[12] Select walnut; receiver top matte to reduce glare Brush 12,16 26 1897-1931[11] Shorter magazine, plain walnut without checkering, solid frame Brush Takedown 12,16 26 1897-1931[11] As above, but takedown frame Riot 12 20 1898-1935[11] Plain walnut, solid or takedown frame Trench 12 20 1917-1945[13] Same as riot gun but with heat shield, bayonet lug, and sling swivels Original Prices When the Model 1897 was first introduced, the price depended upon what grade was being purchased and what features were being added to that specific gun. To purchase a plain finished shotgun would cost the buyer $25. Whereas to have an engraved receiver with checkered and finer wood included, it would cost $100.[8] The more expensive grades of the Model 1897 were the standard, trap, pigeon, and tournament grades. These were the grades that were normally equipped with an engraved receiver and with checkered, finer wood.[4][14] These grades did not go through the abuse that the other grades went through. The less expensive and plainer grades were the Brush, Brush Takedown, Riot, and Trench. These grades were not given the higher valued wood or special designs.[4][14] This is because these guns were designed and built for hard abuse. These grades stood a higher chance of being badly damaged so there was no need to put extra money into them for appearance purposes. As the functions that were performed with these grades required them to be lightweight it was not beneficial to use heavy and expensive wood when designing them. Most often, when these grades were purchased, they were purchased in high numbers. By designing these grades with standard wood and finish, it kept the prices at a lower level.[4][14] Military use Winchester Model 1897 Trench Gun The Model 1897 was popular before World War I, but it was after the war broke out that sales of the Model 1897 picked up. This was because many were produced to meet the demands of the Military. When the United States entered World War I, there was a need for more service weapons to be issued to the troops. It became clear to the United States just how brutal trench warfare was, and how great the need was for a large amount of close-range firepower while fighting in a trench, after they had observed the war for the first three years.[1] The Model 1897 Trench grade was an evolution of this idea. The pre-existing Winchester Model 1897 was modified by adding a perforated steel heat shield over the barrel which protected the hand of the user from the barrel when it became over-heated,[15] and an adapter with bayonet lug for affixing an M1917 bayonet.[1] Model 1897 adapter that allowed the attachment of the M1917 bayonet This model was ideal for close combat and was efficient in trench warfare due to its 20 inch cylinder bore barrel. Buckshot ammunition was issued with the trench grade during the war. Each round of this ammunition contained 9 buckshot pellets that were of the size 00. This gave considerable firepower to the individual soldier by each round that was fired.[2] This shorter barrel and large amount of firepower is what made this grade ideal for trench warfare. The Model 1897 was used by American troops for other purposes in World War I other than a force multiplier. American soldiers who were skilled at trap shooting were armed with these guns and stationed where they could fire at enemy hand grenades in midair.[2] This would deflect the grenades from falling into the American trenches and therefore protect American soldiers.[2] Unlike most modern pump-action shotguns, the Winchester Model 1897 (versions of which were type classified as the Model 97 or M97 for short) fired each time the action closed with the trigger depressed (that is, it lacks a trigger disconnector and is capable of slamfire). Coupled with its six-shot capacity made it effective for close combat, such that troops referred to it as a "trench sweeper". The slamfire allowed troops to empty the whole magazine tube into enemies with great speed. The spread of the buckshot allowed the weapon to hit many targets with minimal aiming. The Model 1897 was so effective because it was devastating, and feared, that the German government protested (in vain) to have it outlawed in combat.[16] The Model 1897 was used in limited numbers during World War II by the United States Army and Marine Corps, although it was largely superseded by the similarly militarized version of the hammerless Model 1912 (still slamfire-capable). Other military uses of the shotgun included "the execution of security/interior guard operations, rear area security operations, guarding prisoners of war, raids, ambushes, military operations in urban terrain, and selected special operations."[16] [edit] World War I Protests Although the Model 1897 was popular with American troops in World War I, it wasn't so popular with the German troops. "On 19 September 1918, the German government issued a diplomatic protest against the American use of shotguns, alleging that the shotgun was prohibited by the law of war."[16] A part of the German protest read; "It is especially forbidden to employ arms, projections, or materials calculated to cause unnecessary suffering".[2] "This is the only known occasion in which the legality of actual combat use of the shotgun has been raised."[16] However, the United States interpreted their use of the shotgun differently than Germany. The Judge Advocate General of the Army, Secretary of State Robert Lansing carefully considered and reviewed the applicable law and promptly rejected the German protest.[16] France and Britain considered using shotguns as trench warfare weapons during World War I. The shotgun in question was a double-barreled shotgun, which was not used because they were unable to obtain high powered ammunition and that type of gun is slow to reload in close combat.[16] [edit] German Response The rejection of their protest greatly upset the German forces, because they believed they were treated unjustly in the war. Shortly after the protest was rejected, Germany issued threats that they would punish all captured American soldiers that were found to be armed with a shotgun.[2] This led to the United States issuing a retaliation threat, stating that any measures unjustly taken against captured American soldiers would lead to an equal act by the United States on captured German soldiers.[17] A combat shotgun is a shotgun that is intended for use in an offensive role, typically by a military force.[1] The earliest shotguns specifically designed for combat were the trench guns or trench shotguns issued in World War I. While limited in range, the multiple projectiles typically used in a shotgun shell provide increased hit probability unmatched by other small arms.[2] Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Characteristics 3 Combat use 4 Effectiveness 5 Ammunition 6 Method of operation 7 Use in asymmetric warfare 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links History Confederate cavalryman with muzzle-loading shotgun. While the sporting shotgun traces its ancestry back to the fowling piece, which was a refinement of the smoothbore musket, the combat shotgun bears more kinship to the shorter blunderbuss. Invented in the 16th century by the Dutch, the blunderbuss was used through the 18th century in warfare by British, Austrian, and Prussian regiments, as well as in the American colonies. As use of the blunderbuss declined, the United States military began to load "buck and ball". Buck and ball was used extensively by Americans at the Battle of New Orleans in 1814 and was partially responsible for the disparate casualty rates between American and British forces. Many of the British wounded recovered quickly as they had been struck by the buckshot rather than the ball. Buck and ball had a greater chance of hitting the enemy but did not cause as severe wounds at longer ranges (although any wound was liable to take a soldier out of a particular fight). Fowling pieces were commonly used by militias, for example during the Texas Revolution. However buck and ball worked as well or better in standard or even rifled muskets. Buck and ball loads were used by both sides of the American Civil War, often by cavalry units.[2][3] The development of the repeating pump action shotguns in the 1890s led to their use by US Marines in the Philippines insurrections and by General "Black Jack" Pershing's pursuit of Pancho Villa, and "riot" shotguns quickly gained favor with civilian police units, but the modern concept of the combat shotgun was fully developed by the American Expeditionary Forces during World War I. The trench gun, as it was called, was a short-barreled pump action shotgun loaded with 6 rounds containing antimony hardened 00 buckshot, and equipped with a bayonet. The M1897 and M1912 also could be slam fired: the weapon having no trigger disconnector, shells could be fired one after the other simply by working the slide if the trigger was held down. When fighting within a trench, the shorter shotgun could be rapidly turned and fired in both directions along the trench axis.[4] The shotguns proved effective enough at short combat ranges to elicit a diplomatic protest from the German government, claiming the shotguns caused excessive injury, and that any troops found in possession of them would be subject to execution. The US Government rejected the claims, and threatened reprisals in kind if any US troops were executed for possession of a shotgun. During the trench warfare of the Gallipoli Campaign, Major Stephen Midgley of the Australian 5th Light Horse Regiment was widely known to use a sawn-off double barrelled shotgun while leading his troops, the weapon's effectiveness resulting in Turkish officers complaining that it was not a 'weapon of war' under international law after Midgley took one Turkish soldier's head "clean off his shoulders". Midgley was ordered by an Australian general to cease using his shotgun and switch to a conventional rifle and bayonet, to which the Major was "bitterly peeved".[5] The shotgun was also well suited for house-to-house fighting. An example of this effectiveness is an event from September 27, 1918. Sergeant Fred Lloyd, armed with a Winchester Model 1897 trench gun, single-handedly retook a German-held French village, routing 30 German soldiers.[6] The shotgun was used by Allied forces and Allied supported partisans in all theaters of combat in World War II, and both pump and semi-automatic shotguns are currently issued to all branches of the US military; they have also been used in subsequent conflicts by French, British, Australian, and New Zealand forces, as well as many guerrillas and insurgents throughout sub-Saharan Africa, Latin and South America, and Southeast Asia.[2] Six different model of shotguns were accepted in the US army during World War II, the most popular being the M97 and M1912. One disadvantage of using a shotgun in the Pacific Theatre was the way of carrying the shotshells. The standard rifle pouches that carried shotshells were small, only about 30 rounds if carried vertically. The Marines would carry the shells in a SL-3 grenade vest from World War I, but these vests were hard to come by. Instead the Marine shotgunner would use whatever he could find to carry the shells by using improvised "homemade" gear or modified bandolier. Another disadvantage was paper-hulled shotshells, which would swell when wet, and not fit into the chamber even after drying out. Military-issue shotshells were usually made entirely of brass to avoid this problem, until the advent of plastic hulls. Gen Douglas MacArthur attempted to restrict the use of shotgun even though the shotgun had proven its worth amongst the Marines in the Pacific war during close combat in trench and jungle fighting. General Alexander Patch was seen being armed with a Winchester shotgun when he personally led an attack in Guadalcanal.[7] In the jungle warfare during the Malayan Emergency, the British Army and local forces of Malaysia used shotguns to great effect due to limited space in the jungles and frequent close combat. In the Vietnam War, the shotgun was used as an individual weapon in the American army during jungle patrol and urban warfare like the Tet Offensive. During the Somalian conflict in 1992, the US task forces tested out a new type of Remington shotgun called Ciener Ultimate Over/Under, which was an under-barrel attachment for the standard M16 variants during Operation Gothic Serpent. The idea was for a soldier in an entry team to be able to breach a locked door with the shotgun and then immediately switch to the assault rifle to clear the room. According to the Army Rangers, their verdict was positive for this new type of breaching gun. In current operations in post-invasion Iraq, the US forces are using their official combat shotguns to clear out suspected insurgent hideouts in house to house fighting.[8] One notable experimental shotgun used in limited numbers during Operation Enduring Freedom is the XM26 for breaching doors or close-quarter battle (CQB). In modern times, with Mechanized Infantry tactics armed forces don't need to "march to battle" as in earlier conflicts. Because of this, they are able to omit the difficult choice of selecting only one weapon in order to save weight. This allows the individual soldier to carry a shotgun as well as an assault rifle during battle. [edit] Characteristics United States Marine carrying a Winchester M97 shotgun. The most common type of shotgun used for this purpose is the manually operated, slide-action/pump-action type, because it is less prone to malfunction (particularly when dirty) than semi-automatic designs. Pump-action shotguns are also less expensive than their semi-automatic counterparts. Even so, semi-automatic shotguns such as the SPAS-12 and Benelli M1014 are currently seeing service in NATO-aligned armed forces. The Mossberg 590A1 is currently the pump-action of choice for US armed forces and has seen service with other militaries. Combat shotguns typically have much shorter barrels than shotguns for hunting and usually, though not always, have magazines of modified design to hold more than the 3 to 5 shots normal with sporting or hunting shotguns. Most combat shotguns have tubular magazines to hold the cartridges, mounted underneath the barrel, identical to those of hunting shotguns except for being longer to hold more ammunition, though some recent designs have detachable box magazines. Combat shotguns for military use are mostly similar to the police riot shotgun; but the military versions may have provisions to mount a bayonet and may be fitted with ventilated steel or plastic hand guards over the barrel to reduce the danger of a soldier burning his hand on the hot barrel during rapid fire. Riot shotguns are also more likely to trade off the increased magazine capacity for the decreased size that entails; for example, a combat model would be more likely to have a 51 cm (20 inch) barrel and a 7 to 10 shot capacity, while riot shotguns are often found with barrels of 35 to 46 cm (14 to 18 inches) and a capacity of 5 or 6 rounds. [edit] Combat use A Mossberg 590 being used by a US Marine for door breaching in Karma, Iraq, in 2005 The combat shotgun has evolved from its original role as a short range combat weapon into a wider role in modern times. With proper configuration, ammunition and training, the modern combat shotgun plays three roles: Offensive weapon Breaching system Less lethal crowd control Effective range of the shotgun with standard buckshot is limited to about 30–40 meters with a full stock (depending on the sights on the gun), and 10 when equipped only with a pistol grip due to the difficulty in accurately aiming without a full stock. Slug rounds, if available, can extend the effective range of the shotgun to 100 meters (although this is also dependent on the shotgun's sighting system; right sights and ghost ring sights will allow the average shooter to effectively engage human-sized targets at considerably greater distances than with a bead sight). Less lethal rounds vary, with ranges from 10 meters for rubber buckshot to 75 meters for rubber slugs. These less lethal munitions are the same type as used by police, and have served well in riot control situations, such as that in Kosovo in 2001.[9] When used as a door breaching system, the shotgun may be provided with a muzzle extension to allow it to be pressed firmly against the door while providing the correct standoff distance for optimum performance. While there are specialized rounds for breaching doors with minimal hazard to any occupants of the room, any type of round will do the job, though with some degradation of effectiveness and increased risk of collateral damage. In operations in Iraq, the shotgun was the preferred method of door breaching by infantry units, ideally with a frangible breaching slug. For the breaching role, shorter barrels are preferred, as they are more easily handled in tight quarters.[10] Limited ammunition capacity is one of the primary downsides of the combat shotgun. While box magazines are available in some models (such as shotgun derivatives of the AK-47 design, like the Saiga-12), the tubular magazine is still dominant. This limits capacities; the current US pump shotgun issued, the Mossberg 500, has a 5 or 8 shot capacity depending on barrel length. The tubular magazine does allow easy "topping off" (a tube-fed pump shotgun can be kept shouldered and aimed at a target and ready to fire while being loaded), so training emphasizes the need to load the magazine to full capacity whenever the opportunity presents itself. A common doctrine is "shoot one, load one": load a shell immediately after every shot (when this does not jeopardize the operator's safety), to ensure that the shotgun is fully loaded at all times; this ensures that the operator has a full magazine at his/her disposal in case of emergencies when he/she may not be able to reload in between shots.[11] A pistol is also advised as a backup weapon, should the operator empty the magazine and not have time to reload. A sling to carry the shotgun is essential if it is to be used in conjunction with another weapon, so that the shotgun may be readily accessible.[12] [edit] Effectiveness A Mossberg 500 shotgun fitted with a grenade launcher adapter, shown holding a less-than-lethal riot control grenade A Joint Service Combat Shotgun Program report on the lethality of shotguns in war states, in support of the use of the shotgun in warfare, "the probability of hitting a man-sized target with a shotgun was superior to that of all other weapons", and goes on to support this with statistics compiled by the British from the conflict in Borneo in the 1960s.[2] The buckshot typically used in a combat shotgun spreads out to a greater or lesser degree depending on the barrel choke, and can be effective at ranges as far as 70 m (75 yards). The delivery of the large number of projectiles simultaneously makes the shotgun the most effective short range weapon commonly used, with a hit probability 45% greater than a submachine gun, and twice as great as an assault rifle.[2] While each pellet is only as effective as a small caliber handgun round, and offers very poor penetration against an armored target, the multiple projectiles increases the likelihood of one or more peripheral wounds. A number of compromises are involved in choosing a shot size:[11][13] Smaller pellets lose velocity more rapidly and penetrate the target less Larger pellets means fewer pellets, resulting in a reduced probability of hits Heavier loads produce more recoil and less velocity than lighter loads Reduced recoil loads (less shot and/or lower velocity) may produce smaller patterns, which may decrease hit probability [edit] Ammunition The most common type of ammunition used in combat shotguns, whether for military or law enforcement purposes, is buckshot, typically a 70 mm (2 3/4 inch) 12 gauge shell loaded with 9 hardened 00 buckshot, with a diameter of about 8.4 mm (.33 inch). Buckshot is brutally effective at close ranges against unarmored targets—enough so that Germany issued a protest against its use in 1918.[2] The only other types of ammunition currently in use in military shotguns are breaching rounds, which are either specially designed frangible rounds designed to destroy a door lock or hinge while minimizing the risk of damage to occupants of the room or very light (#9) birdshot, which accomplishes the same purpose. Shotgun slugs are currently under consideration by the US military as an anti-material round; the tendency of typical commercial shotgun slugs to deform on impact would render them illegal under the Hague Convention of 1899 and so a jacketed, hardened or sabot slug may be adopted. Less lethal rounds are used by U.S. troops serving as police forces in occupied territory; beanbag and rubber bullet rounds are commonly used to discourage looters and rioters. In military use, flechette ammunition has also been used in shotguns (primarily by special forces, such as its use by the SEALs in the Vietnam War),[14] but this is not common. Other experimental shotgun ammunition has been created, such as SCIMTR, but none have been successful enough to be adopted. Due to the great flexibility of the shotgun, it is often used in non-offensive roles as well. The US Infantry, for example, offers a number of less lethal varieties of ammunition for use in the riot control role, and for door breaching with #9 birdshot, shotgun slugs, and specialized breaching rounds. Less-lethal options also include the use of grenade launching cups, special launching cartridges and a less-lethal grenade. There are a number of experimental rounds currently under development and consideration by the US military, including explosive rounds and stand-off breaching rounds, which could further improve the range and flexibility of the combat shotgun. [edit] Method of operation There are two primary modes of operation for combat shotguns, the pump action, and various semi-automatic designs, mostly gas operation and recoil operation designs. The SPAS-12, SPAS-15, and Benelli M3[15] shotguns, combine the two, offering pump action or, when the pump is locked forwards, autoloading operation. There have also been a few fully automatic shotguns produced such as the AA-12. The autoloading shotgun (semi or full automatic) offers a higher (theoretical) rate of fire than a pump shotgun, though controlling a heavy recoiling shotgun in rapid fire is difficult. The autoloading action is more suitable for firing from a prone position, as operation of a pump action moves the elbow normally used to support the shotgun, and it can more effectively be used one-handed, unlike pump actions which require two hands for effective cycling of the action. The pump shotgun is more versatile than the semiautomatic, as it will more readily fire low powered less lethal munitions which lack sufficient pressure to cycle the action in an autoloading design. A pump shotgun, which does not rely on its ammunition for energy to cycle, operates normally with the lower powered ammunition, and provides utility in combat and riot control situations. In addition, the pump shotgun has an advantage in situations such as door breaching, where the shotgun is immediately dropped (retained by a sling) and replaced by another weapon after the door has been breached. By not cycling the action after firing the final breaching rounds (multiple rounds are often required) the pump shotgun is left without a loaded round in the chamber, unlike a semiautomatic shotgun. [edit] Use in asymmetric warfare Due to the widespread use of the shotgun as a sporting firearm, it is used in guerilla warfare and other forms of asymmetric warfare. Che Guevara, in his 1961 book Guerrilla Warfare, notes that shotgun ammunition can be obtained by guerrillas even in times of war, and that shotguns loaded with heavy shot are highly effective against unarmored troop transport vehicles. He recommends that suburban guerrilla bands should be armed with easily concealable weapons, such as handguns and a sawed-off shotgun or carbine. Guevara also mentions an improvised weapon developed by guerrillas consisting of a sawed-off 16 gauge shotgun provided with a bipod to hold the barrel at a 45 degree angle. Called the "M-16", this was loaded with a blank cartridge formed by removing the shot from a standard shotshell. A wooden rod was then placed in the barrel, with a Molotov cocktail attached to the front. This formed an improvised mortar capable of firing the incendiary device accurately out to a range of 100 meters.[16] [edit] Gallery A group of US Marines in Iraq in 2005, armed with a combat shotgun, assault rifle, and squad automatic weapon. US soldiers in Tal Afar, Iraq, search for insurgents. Soldier in foreground is carrying a shotgun on a sling for breaching, and an assault rifle. A US soldier in Aksabah, Iraq, uses a pistol-grip shotgun to breach a locked door in a night operation. The Benelli M1014, seen in training use in Arta, Djibouti, late 2006 [edit] See also Specific articles: Armsel Striker Auto Assault-12 Shotgun (AA-12) Benelli M3, a 12 gauge combat shotgun with switchable pump-action/semi-automatic firing modes Benelli M1014, a gas actuated semi-automatic which is the current "Joint Service Combat Shotgun", serving as a replacement for pump action models Daewoo USAS-12 Franchi SPAS-12, a 12 gauge combat shotgun with switchable pump-action/semi-automatic firing modes Franchi SPAS-15, a 12 gauge combat shotgun with magazine feeding Heckler & Koch FABARM FP6, 12 gauge pump action combat shotgun Ithaca 37, 12 gauge pump-action shotgun used by U.S. Navy SEALS in Vietnam with duckbill attachment KS-23 Mossberg 500, pump-action combat shotgun used by the United States Army and Marines NeoStead 2000, used by the SAS Pancor Jackhammer Remington 870—pump-action combat shotgun used by the Swiss Army for door and engine block breaching and the United States Air Force for air base/aircraft defense Saiga-12—Russian gas operated semi-automatic shotgun based on the AK-74M, with a detachable magazine, in use by the Russian MVD (Ministry of Interior). Special Operations Weapon, 12 gauge full-automatic shotgun used by U.S. Navy SEALS in Vietnam Winchester 1200, a 12 or 20 gauge pump-action shotgun Winchester Model 1897—12 gauge pump-action exposed-hammer shotgun used from WW I through Korean War Winchester Model 1912—12 gauge pump-action hammerless shotgun used from WW I through Vietnam Zlatoust RB-12, an Armenian magazine fed shotgun

 468403208925555411 Winchester 1897 Trench gun heat shield and bayonet lug attachment original WWII
 468403208925555412 Winchester 1897 Trench gun heat shield and bayonet lug attachment original WWII
 468403208925555413 Winchester 1897 Trench gun heat shield and bayonet lug attachment original WWII
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